Introduction to Microsoft Word



Week 1: Font Formatting

  • Introductions
  • Expectations – starting class on-time, attendance, pace of class, homework
  • Brief Course Description
  • Understanding Terminology: Parts of the Screen

Task Bar, Start Menu, Desktop, Icons/Shortcuts, Mouse Basics (left click, right click, double click)

  • What might you use Microsoft Word to do?
  • Opening Microsoft Word and parts of the Word window

Title Bar, Menu Bar (like at a restaurant), Tool Bar (like a toolbox), Page

  • Other Important Basics

Cursor/Point of Insertion, Mouse Arrow, Enter, Caps Lock, Shift Key

  • Font formatting: What is a font or text and how do you make it look different?

Bold, Italicize, Alignment, Typestyle, Size, the drop down menu and scroll bar (visual aid for scrolling and alignment)

Highlighting text: the most important skill for Word: clicking and dragging the mouse (visual aid and give tips for highlighting: place cursor where you want to start versus in the middle)

  • Quick Summary
  • Homework Assignment 1 (use assignment from Fall 2000/Spring 2001 with added instructions to practice highlighting text?)
  • Handout: Parts of the Screen and the Word window

Week 2: Text Editing

· Review of Text Formatting (use in-class assignment from Fall 2000/Spring 2001)

· Different Ways to Save Information: Floppy Disk, C Drive, Network (diagram)

· Students create their own folders on the server and save in-class assignment

· Closing, Opening and Printing your document

· Editing Text (Open new in-class assignment with marked changes):


Inserting text in the middle of existing text

Copying and Pasting Text

Cutting and Pasting Text (visual aid)


· Undo function

· Insert/Over-type

· Text Alignment (visual aid)

· Quick Summary

· Homework Assignment 2 (memo – before, before with marked changes and after)

· Handouts: Lesson 2 Tips, Network Diagram, Save Dialog Box, Print Dialog Box


Week 3: Paragraph Formatting

· Review of Text Editing (new in-class assignment [letter to principal or teacher] – students open the document from their folders on the network)

· Tabs

· Setting Margins and Definition of Fields

· Line Spacing

· Text Alignment

· Quick Summary

· Homework Assignment 3 (letter to creditors – before, before with marked changes and after)

· Handout: Lesson 3 Tips


Week 4: Page Formatting

· Review Paragraph Formatting (new in-class assignment – [insert relevant example – resume?])

· Borders and Shading

Borders (setting, style, color, width): surrounding entire paragraph versus individual words

Page Borders (setting, style, color, width, art): using the diagram to individually select borders

Shading: shading (places a colored box around the text) versus highlighting

· Inserting a Page Break (where your cursor is resting is very important!)

· Portrait and Landscape Layout (use visual aides)

· Print Preview and Zoom (reminder that zoom does not change actual size of text, but works like a magnifying glass)

· Different Views – Normal and Print Layout

· Quick Summary

· Homework: Assignment 4 (Flyer – example)

· Handout: Lesson 4 Tips


Week 5: Tools and More Formatting

· Review Borders, Page Borders and Shading (new in-class assignment – [insert relevant example])

· Checking for Spelling Mistakes (new in-class assignment 2 – resume)

Right Click

Spell Check the entire document (explain dialog box)

· Thesaurus (explain what happens if your word is in plural form)

· Help function (explain dialog box)

· Inserting Page Numbers

· Bullets and Numbering

· Quick Summary

· Homework: Assignment 5 (Cover letter)

· Handouts: Lesson 5 Tips, Spell Check dialog box, Help function dialog box


Week 6: Review, Practice; Last day of Formal Class

· Review Tools (new in-class assignment – [insert relevant example that would use a header and/or footer)

· Headers and Footers (explain use and what you might use it for in real life – presentation, stationery, memo)

· Inserting the date and time using the date and time button

· Inserting Pictures

Clip Art

From File

  • Find and Replace (what would I use this for in real life?)
  • Review Course Description and Questions (if none, either do envelopes and labels or inserting tables)
  • Class Surveys


Copies of Assignments Available in Students’ folders on Server and on floppy disk

Revise Homework 1

Create In-Class 2, Homework 2, Handouts 2

In-Class 3, Homework 3

In-Class 4, Homework 4

In-Class 5, Homework 5, Handouts 5



Software Basics


· Opening and closing Microsoft Word

· Opening a new document

· Maximizing, minimizing, and restoring a window

· Selecting text

· Saving a Word document on the server




· Italics, Bold, Underline

· Single spacing/Double spacing

· Selecting fonts

· Setting margins

· Changing font sizes

· Tabs

· Changing color of fonts

· Portrait/Landscape page layout

· Changing Case

· Text alignment: left, center, right

· Bullets/Numbering

· Page borders

· Changing background color

· Page columns





· Copy text

· Undo function

· Paste text

· Insert/Over-type

· Cut text

· Backspace/Delete


· Inserting headers/footers

· Manipulating the tool bar

· Envelopes/Labels

· Printing (print set-up)

· Inserting objects/Pictures



· Spell Check

· Thesaurus

· Find and Replace

· Print Preview

· Using Help

Class 1-Outline


· Explain the purpose of Microsoft Word (show examples of documents created on Word)

· Opening, minimizing, restoring, re-sizing, and closing Word

· Basic grammar (sentences start with a capital letter, space after a comma, etc.)

· Keyboard keys: he purpose of the shift key and how to type the symbols.

· Have the class do “Lesson 1 in class” exercise.

· Selecting text: click and drag method, double clicking on a word to select the word, selecting a line, selecting a paragraph, and selecting the entire document.

· Formatting: bold, italics, underline, font, font size, and font color.

· Hand out “Lesson 1 homework”.



[First Name and Last Name]


Today is Monday, June 18, 2007. It’s the first day of class for Microsoft Word!


Would you like to learn a lot over the coming weeks? If so, come to class every Saturday and practice during the week.



[First and Last Name]


Microsoft Word is a word processing program. The main function of a word processor is very similar to a typewriter. However, unlike a typewriter, if one makes a mistake, it is very easy to correct that mistake.


A very important skill in using a word processor is to understand the keys on the keyboard. Notice the numbers along the top row of keys. On the same key above each number there is a symbol. For example, on the “1” key, there is an exclamation point. To type an exclamation point, one must depress and hold the shift key while pressing the “1” key. Isn’t that great!


Here is an example of utilizing these keys:


5% of $50.00 is $2.50 (That wasn’t too hard, was it?)


Remember that capital letters are typed by depressing and holding the shift key while pressing the desired letter key. Quotation marks, which are “the two marks encompassing this phrase” are created by depressing and holding the shift key while pressing the key next to the “Enter” key. If you do not press the shift key, the marks will be ‘single quotes’. This mark is also used as an apostrophe as in the following words: isn’t, can’t, and wasn’t.


Experimenting with the keyboard is a great way to learn how to type all the different symbols that are available. Have fun playing around with these keys!


Class 2- Outline


· Brief Review of text formatting and in-class activity (Lesson 2 in-class)

· Explain various ways to save information on a computer (diskette, C drive, network)

· Have the students create their own folder on the server

· Save in-class activity as “Fancy Text” in each students’ folders

· Close Word and then show how to retrieve the saved document from their folder

· Explain how to print and how students print the document.

· Begin new material: Close the opened document, but not Word. Have them open a new Word document (File—new—Blank document)

· Editing text:

- Backspace/delete function

- Inserting text in the middle of existing text

- Correcting spelling mistakes

- Copying and pasting text

- Cutting and pasting text

· Undo Function

· Insert/Over-type

· Text-alignment (Left, Right, Justified)

· Hand out Lesson 2 Homework



Text Formatting

**Always Remember to Select (or Highlight) the text before formatting it!**

· Making a word Bold – Select the text and then click the button on the tool bar that has the letter “B” on it.

· Underlining text – Select the text and then click the button on the tool bar that has the letter “U” on it.

· Italicizing text – Select the text and then click the button on the tool bar that has the letter “I” on it.

· Changing the size of text – Select the text, click the drop down arrow next to the font size, and click on the desired size.

· Changing the font of text – Select the text, click the drop down arrow next to the font name, and click on the desired font.

· Changing the color of text – Select the text, click the drop down arrow next to the “A” on the tool bar, and click the desired color.

Text Editing


· Deleting a word or phrase

1. Select the word and press the delete key.


2. Place the blinking cursor on the right side of the word and press the backspace key until the word is entirely deleted.


3. Place the blinking cursor on the left side of the word and press the delete key until the word is entirely deleted.


· Inserting a word in an existing phrase or sentence – Place the blinking cursor in the location where the word is to be inserted, then type the word. (Ensure the spacing on each side of the inserted word is correct.)


NOTE: If the Insert key is depressed, then the “over type” mode is engaged. This will not allow words to be inserted without typing over the text already written to the right of the blinking cursor.



· Copying and Pasting Text – Select the text you want to copy, click on “Edit” on the menu bar, and then click “copy”. Next, place the blinking cursor in the location where you would like to paste the text, click on “Edit” on the menu bar, and then click “paste”.


· Cutting and Pasting Text – Select the text you want to relocate, click on “Edit” on the menu bar, and then click “cut”. Next, place the blinking cursor in the location where you would like to paste the text, click on “Edit” on the menu bar, and then click “paste”.





Font: Tempus Sans ITC

Size: 48

Bold Print


How are you?

Font: Comic Sans MS

Size: 18



Tickle me pink.

Font: Times New Roman

Size: 26

Color: Pink




[First Name and Last Name]


Keith ran three miles yesterday, but he ran five miles today.



1. Type the sentence above exactly as you see it.

2. Insert the word “barely” between the words “Keith” and “ran”.

3. Delete the word “yesterday” and replace it with the words “last Friday”.

4. Underline the word “three”

5. Underline and bold the word “five”

6. Change the period at the end of the sentence to an exclamation point.

7. Copy the sentence and past the copy underneath the original.

Class 3- Outline


· Brief Review of text editing and in-class activity (filenames: “Lesson 3 in-class paragraph” & “Lesson in class instructions”)

· Before class, place a copy of “Lesson 3 in class paragraph” in each student’s folder. Have them retrieve this file. Hand out a hard copy of “Lesson 3 in class instructions” and have the class edit the paragraph exactly as the instructions explain.

· Tabs: Have the class insert a tab at the beginning of the paragraph.

· Setting Margins: Teach and have the class practice setting the top, bottom, left and right margins.

· Line spacing: Explain and have the class practice line spacing (single, 1.5, and double spacing) of the paragraph.

· Text alignment: Review the left, center, and right alignment and introduce the “justify” formatting of a paragraph.

· Hand out homework “Lesson 3 homework”



Locating your folder on the network

To view a file in your folder: In Microsoft Word, click on “file” in the menu bar. Next, click on “open”. Then, click on the down arrow of the field next to where it says “Look In”. Finally double click the following directories/folders in the “drop down” menu:


Network Neighborhood


User Files

Intro. to Microsoft Word Spring ’01

[Your Name]


Exercise Instructions

1. Cut the last sentence (“Garbage collectors found….”) and paste it after the second sentence (the sentence ending with “…in Northeastern Spain”).

2. Cut the first sentence and paste it as the last sentence of the paragraph.

3. Change $95,000,000 to $95,000

4. Change the words “Star Market” to “police station”.

5. The word “accidentally” is typed twice. Delete one of them.

6. Copy and paste this paragraph below the original. Leave two line spaces between the first and second paragraphs.


A Man and His Money


The man named the exact sum lost, was handed his stash and took the cash to a bank. An 80-year-old merchant has recovered his savings after accidentally depositing $95,000,000 in a trash bin in northeastern Spain. The elderly merchant arrived at the Star Market hours later to say he had accidentally accidentally discarded his savings the night before, thinking it was a bag of old bills and receipts. Garbage collectors found a bag stuffed with peseta notes of various denominations and submitted it to town hall officials, police said.

Homework Instructions


1. Type your first and last name.

2. Press Enter twice and type the above paragraph exactly as it is written.

3. Copy and paste the paragraph below the original (skipping a line between the first and second paragraphs).

4. Change the left and right margins to 1.5.

5. Edit the first paragraph as follows:

· Change the font to Arial, 14 point font.

· Indent the first line by inserting a tab.

· Justify the paragraph (the justification alignment).

6. Edit the second paragraph as follows:

· Change the font to courier new, 10 point font.

· Change the line spacing to double spacing.



Robert Garside, a 33-year-old Brit who has vowed to run across every continent, has reached Hollywood. Garside, known as The Runningman, entered the United States from Mexico last month. He expects to complete his five-year, 42,000-mile journey next year. The former police officer left London in December 1996, and has jogged about 30,000 miles, covering Europe, Asia, Australia and Latin America. He has had to outrun thieves in Mexico and Panama, dodge bullets in Russia and was jailed in China for running in restricted areas.



Class 4 Outline

· Place the file “Lesson 4 in class paragraph” in each student’s folder.

· Briefly review paragraph formatting (alignment, line spacing, margins, indenting the first line).

· Pass out a hard copy of “Lesson 4 in class instruction” and have the class retrieve the ‘paragraph’ so that they can perform this exercise.

· Teach the formatting technique of ‘borders and shading’.

- Borders (setting, style, color, width): Explain that this border can be used to surround entire paragraphs or just individual words. Illustrate this by placing a border around the title of the ‘in class’ paragraph.

- Page Borders (setting, style, color, width, art): Show how to use the ‘diagram’ to select individually the top border, left border, right border, and bottom border.

- Shading: Explain the difference between shading and highlighting (which is from the tool bar, the button next to the font color button). Shading places a ‘nicely-shaped’ colored box around the text, whereas highlighting merely highlights the selected text.

· Teach the class how to insert a page break and explain the function of a page break. Have them insert a page break at the end of the paragraph. Show the class how to use the scroll bar to go back and forth between the pages.

· Explain and demonstrate how to change from portrait to landscape layout.

· Teach the class how to use print preview and how to adjust the zoom (100%, page width, whole page, etc.)

· Explain the “different” views associated with Microsoft Word. Recommend teaching the class to use either normal view or page layout view and how to switch from one to the other.

· Have the class save their work.

· Pass out the homework (Lesson 4 homework). This is an open-ended homework. Tell the class to create a landscape “certificate”-like document that incorporates borders, page borders, and shading. They can try to duplicate the homework but do not need to be exact. The key is to use the borders and shading capabilities of Word.


Borders (Placing borders around text or entire paragraphs)

· Select the text where you want to place the border.

· Click “Format” on the Menu Bar.

· Click on “Borders and Shading”.

· Click on the tab labeled “Borders”.

· Select the desired setting, style, and color.

· Click OK.


Page Borders (Placing borders along the margin of a page)

· Click “Format” on the Menu Bar.

· Click on “Borders and Shading”.

· Click on the tab labeled “ Page Borders”.

· Select the desired setting, style, and color.

· Click OK.



· Select the text that you want to shade.

· Click “Format” on the Menu Bar.

· Click on “Borders and Shading”.

· Click on the tab labeled “Shading”.

· Select the desired color.

· Click OK.


Inserting a Page Break

· Make sure the blinking cursor is at the location where you want to insert the page break.

· Click “Insert” on the menu bar.

· Click on “Break”

· Click on the radio button next to “Page Break”

· Click OK.


Changing Paper Layout from Portrait to Landscape

· Click “File” on the menu bar.

· Click on “Page Setup”.

· Click on the tab labeled “Paper Size”.

· Click on the radio button next to “Landscape”.

· Click OK.

Exercise Instructions

1. Center the title.

2. Change the font size of the title to size 14 and make it bold.

3. Change the left and right margins to 1.5”.

4. Change the line spacing of the paragraph to double spacing.

5. Align the paragraph using the justify alignment.

6. Indent the first line of the paragraph.


“No More Hogging the Aisle in Flight”

When pigs fly, they travel first class but aren't well-behaved passengers. On a US Airways flight from Philadelphia to Seattle, two passengers used a doctor's note to persuade airline officials to allow them to bring a 250-pound pig aboard, claiming it was a "service animal," akin to a seeing-eye dog. According to passenger accounts, the pig went wild upon landing, trying to enter the pit and defecating in the cabin. Now, the Federal Aviation Administration and the airline are investigating the matter, trying to determine whether safety and sanitation rules were violated.


Class 5 Outline

· Place the file “Lesson 5 in class article” in each student’s folder.

· Briefly review borders, page borders, and shading.

· Pass out a hard copy of “Lesson 5 in class instructions” and have the class retrieve the article so that they can perform this exercise.

· Teach the 2 methods of checking for spelling mistakes.

§ Have the class right click on the word “Unitted” in the first sentence so that a selection of correctly spelled words similar to “Unitted” will be displayed.

§ Have the class perform a spell check on the entire document. Point out that if a single word is misspelled throughout the document, that word can be corrected throughout the document using the “Change All” option. In this document the word “number” is misspelled every time. Also, note that not every word that the spell check questions is actually misspelled. In cases where the word is actually correct, the user must select “ignore” to continue with the spell check.

· Explain the use of the Thesaurus and show the class how to access it. Have them select the word “critics” from the third paragraph and ask them what synonyms are listed for this word in the thesaurus. Note that “critics” will not be in the thesaurus, but critic (without the ‘s’) will be there.

· Demonstrate the Help function in Microsoft Word

§ Have the class select “Microsoft Word Help” from the Help menu. Tell them to type the following question: “How do I underline a word?” When the choices for the answer to the question appears, have them click the bullet that says “Underline text or numbers”.

§ Next, have the class select “Contents and Index” from the Help menu. Under the “index” tab, have them type the word “bold”, so that they can see that instructions on “bold formatting” will be shown to them.

· Teach the class how to insert page numbers by selecting “page numbers” from the insert menu.

· Bullets and Numbering--Point out the “bulleted” section of the article. Show them how to remove or add the bullets to that section. Also, show them how it can be switched from bullets to numbering. Use the tool bar for this.

· Hand out the homework “Lesson 5 homework”.


Checking Spelling

· If a word has a red squiggly line underneath it, place the mouse anywhere on that word and right click. Then left click on the word that shows that correct spelling.

· To spell check an entire document, click on “Tools” from the menu bar, then click “Spelling and Grammar”. A window will appear displaying each word that Microsoft Word does not recognize. For each word, you have the option to ignore the “misspelling” or have Microsoft Word change the spelling by selecting one of the options in the suggestions field and clicking “Change”.



· Select the word for which you would like to find a synonym.

· Click on “Tools” from the menu bar.

· Click on “Language”.

· Click on “Thesaurus”.

· Review the options from the list. Select the desired synonym and click “Replace”.


Page Numbering

· Click on “Insert” on the menu bar.

· Click on “Page Numbering”.

· Select the alignment and position you would like to place the page numbers.

· Click “OK”


Bullets and Numbering

· Place the blinking cursor in the area of your document where you would like to create a bulleted or numbered list.

· Click on the “bullets” button or the “numbering” button from the tool bar, depending on whether you would like to create bullets or create a numbered list.

· Begin typing the list. After each item or line, press the “Enter” key and a bullet (or number) will automatically appear on the next line with the blinking cursor.

· Once you are finished with list, press “Enter” to advance the blinking cursor to the next line. Another bullet (or number) will automatically appear, so to get rid of it, click on the bullets (or numbering) button on the tool bar to deactivate this format.

Exercise Instructions

1. Center and bold the title.

2. Place a single-line black “shadow” border (1 pt width) around the title.

3. Shade the title gray.

4. Insert a page border (double-line black, box border, 4 point width) around the document.

5. Left align the article.



“What Are Your Chances of Getting Into Med School?”

In the past, if you wanted to go to medical school you almost had to be a science major, and college advisors encouraged undergrads to concentrate on typical premed fields like biology, chemistry, and physics.

Today, you have more choice. Most medical schools encourage students to pursue a broad, liberal arts education and place more emphasis on the breadth and depth of coursework than the area of study. Still, admissions committees need to know that you can handle the rigors of science-intensive medical school coursework and maintain certain minimum requirements. Although mandatory courses vary somewhat from school to school, the basic requirements at most schools are as follows:

Biology or Zoology

1 year with lab

Inorganic Chemistry

1 year with lab

Organic Chemistry

1 year with lab


1 year with lab


1 year

A number of schools also require coursework in calculus or college-level math, behavioral science, the humanities, and computers. Some more competitive schools require advanced-level science courses, especially for students who meet basic requirements through high school advanced placement credits.

Most of the admissions officers we surveyed placed Grade Point Average (GPA) at or near the top of their rankings of selection factors. In assessing your GPA, admissions committees look at two different values: your science GPA and your overall GPA. While the science GPA has traditionally been the more important of the two, the movement toward recruiting a more well-rounded student body has increased the importance of the nonscience GPA.

In general, successful applicants have very high GPAs, and your cumulative average is likely to have a large impact on where you are admitted. In recent years, the mean GPA of accepted students has been a little over 3.4 (out of 4.0), and almost fifty percent had a GPA of 3.5 or above. Barely two percent of accepted students had a GPA of 2.5 or under. Most students who are admitted with substandard GPAs are chosen because admissions committees recognize either mitigating factors that adversely affected the GPA (such as an educationally disadvantaged background) or significant and progressive improvement of grades in the upper-class years. Medical schools can also be swayed by an exceptional performance on the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT).

This article was excerpted from Medical School Companion, by Mary Ross-Dolen MD, Keith Berkowitz, and Ali Eyad.

Homework Instructions

Part One

  1. Type your first and last name.
  2. Press Enter twice and type the following words using bullet format (as shown):

· Authorise

· Demokratic

· Satarday

-Note: All of these words are spelled incorrectly. Use the spell check and correct these words.

  1. Press Enter twice and type the following words, but then replace these words with a synonym from the Thesaurus. Use the bullet format (as shown)

Ø jovial

Ø lethargic

Ø superfluous

  1. Insert the drawing toolbar (you will need to use the Help function in order to find out how to do it!)
  2. Press Enter twice and insert a clip art picture of your choosing from the Clip Gallery (you will need to use the Help function again)
  3. Insert a page number in the bottom center of the page.


Part Two


By now, you have typed in your contact information as a header. In the same document, begin working on typing in the information you would like to include in your resume. At this point, don’t worry about making formatting changes (changing fonts, adjusting spacing, etc.) as we will spend time during week 5’s class exploring how to do that together. Common categories include your objective – stating what type of job you would like to find and why, your education (include location and dates attended) and your work experience.



Class 6 Outline

· Hand out the “in class Lesson 6” assignment and have the class perform the exercise.

· Headers and Footers: Explain that headers and footers are used when you want the same information to appear on every page (unless otherwise specified) of your document. Ask the class insert a header for the “in class lesson 6”, calling it “Commonly Misspelled Words in English”.

· Have the class insert the date and time in the footer, using the date button and the time button.

· Inserting Pictures: Have the class insert a clip-art picture on their document. Have them become familiar with moving it around on the screen and re-sizing it.

· If possible, click on the Internet icon, after you go into the clip art menu (this is done by clicking on insert, picture, clip-art, “world/magnifying glass icon”). This launches the web and allows the class to search for clip art on the web.

· “Find and replace”: Explain that “find and replace” is a useful tool when searching for words or phrases in long documents. Have the class find the word “exceed” in their ‘in class assignment’ and then replace it with the word “surpass”

· Open up the class to ask questions for the rest of the time on things they would like to see demonstrated with Microsoft Word. If no one has anything they want to see demonstrated, then show them features in Word that you think are used (i.e. how to do envelopes & labels, inserting tables, etc.)

· Pass out the class surveys for the class to fill out.

· No homework, since technically this is the last “formal” class.


Headers and Footers

· Click “View” on the Menu Bar

· Click “Header and Footer” (The blinking cursor will appear in the header.)

· Type and format the desired text.

· If you want to insert a footer, click the button on the pop up toolbar that says “Switch Between Header and Footer”. (This button is used to switch between the header and the footer.)

· Click on “Close” once you are finished.


Inserting Pictures

· Click on “Insert” on the menu bar.

· Click on “Picture”.

· Click on “Clip Art” if you want to insert a picture from Word. (Several categories exist. Choose the category, select the picture, and click “insert”.)

· Click on “From File” if the picture is stored elsewhere on the PC. (Locate the picture and click “insert”.)


Finding a Word or Phrase in a Document

· Click on “Edit” on the menu bar.

· Click on “Find”.

· In the field labeled “Find what:”, type the word or phrase you want to locate.

· Hit “Enter” or click on the button labeled “Find Next”.

Find and Replace

· Click on “Edit” on the menu bar.

· Click on “Replace”.

· In the field labeled “Find what:”, type the word you want replaced in your document.

· In the field labeled “Replace with:”, type the word you want to replace with your original word.

· Click on “Replace” to replace a single instance of the original word, OR

· Click on “Replace All” to replace the word every time it is appears in the document.

Exercise Instructions

Type the following words in a bulleted format and correct their spelling using spell check. Then insert a page number in the top right-hand corner.







Faith (for Content):