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Socionics is a model of personality based on Carl Jung's work on Psychological Types, Freud's theory of the conscious and subconscious, and Antoni K?pi?ski's theory of information metabolism. It was founded mainly by the Lithuanian researcher Aušra Augustinavi?i?t? in the 1970s and is evolving rapidly. The name socionics comes from the word society, since Augustinavi?i?t? believed that each type of personality has a special social role, which can be specified and explained by socionics.[1]

Socionics is based upon the idea that a person's character acts like a set of blocks called "psychological functions". Different ways of combining and chaining these functions result in different ways of accepting and producing information, which in turn results in different behavior patterns and thus different character types. Socionics also includes an intertype relations theory, based on the interaction of these functions between different character types.

The institute of Socionics - International Institute of Socionics (IIS) - was founded in 1991 in Kiev, Ukraine. The director is Dr. Alexander Boukalov.

Jung's psychological types

Carl Jung describes four basic psychological functions that are capable of becoming conscious:[2]

  • Sensation - all perceptions by means of the sense organs
  • Intuition - perception by way of the unconscious, or perception of unconscious events
  • Thinking (logic) - interpretation of information based on whether it is correct or incorrect
  • Feeling (ethics) - interpretation of information based on its ethical aspects

Sensation and intuition referred to as either perceiving or irrational functions. They are thus named because unlike the rational (also called judging) functions, thinking and feeling, they tend to the experience of reality rather than the interpretation of it. One function dominates consciousness and its opposite characterizes unconsciousness. Generally there is auxiliary (i.e. secondary) function from other pair of functions. It is common to refer to both dominant and auxiliary functions, for example intuitive-thinking or sensation-feeling.

Attitude of consciousness is basic direction of conscious interests and energies flow. Two possible directions of flow are introversion (inward to subjective, psychological experience) or extroversion (outward to the environment of objects, other people and collective norms). Opposite attitudes characterize unconsciousness. So the dominant function of consciousness can be introverted or extroverted. That gives as a result 8 different major psychological types. Mixed types includes also auxiliary function.

Socionics functions

The basic premise of socionics is that the complete information about any object can be described by 8 categories, called socionics functions. Augustinavi?i?t? introduced special symbols for each of this functions, to simplify their discussion.

Function Acronym Symbol Description
Extroverted thinking Te Te is responsible for efficiency of actions, understanding of technological processes, the organization of work.
Extroverted ethics (feeling) Fe Fe is responsible for perception of an emotional condition of the person, expression of emotions, management of an emotional condition of people.
Extroverted intuition Ne Ne is responsible for understanding of essence of the phenomena and processes, an estimation of potential opportunities of people and the phenomena, vision of variants of succession of events.
Extroverted sensing Se Se is responsible for perception of space, appearance and the form of subjects, an estimation of an alignment of forces, strong-willed and power methods of achievement of the purpose.
Introverted thinking Ti Ti is responsible for understanding of logic communications and structures, classification, ordering, the analysis, logic explanations and proofs.
Introverted ethics (feeling) Fi Fi is responsible for understanding of mutual relations between people, skill to build attitudes, a moral and moral estimation, aspiration to humanism.
Introverted intuition Ni Ni is responsible for an estimation of time, timeliness of actions, understanding of a course of processes in time, forecasting.
Introverted sensing Si Si is responsible for perception of physical sensations, questions of comfort and a cosiness, pleasure.

The 16 types

Classical socionics theory contains 16 different psychological types. These types are described by their two strongest functions, where Jung's functions are used. While Jung described only 8 types, considering the most dominant function of the personality, socionics like the MBTI describes the different types based on pairs of functions - dominant and secondary functions.. The secondary function is opposite to the dominant function in extroversion and rationality. For example, if the dominant function is introverted thinking (a rational and introverted function), the secondary function must be irrational and extroverted, which means the only two functions that could complement introverted thinking are extroverted sensing or extroverted intuition.

Augustinavi?i?t? usually used descriptions like sensory logical introvert to refer to the type. In this example the first function is an introverted sensing and the secondary is logic (which must be extroverted). Besides this, Augustinavi?i?t? used the names of famous people as a moniker for each type. For example, she called the type of sensory logical introvert Gabin or sensory ethical introvert Dumas. Some later researchers believed that using names of famous people is not quite appropriate and used instead such names as Craftsman or Mediator. Such names were selected to describe the social role of each particular type in the most precise way.

In Russian, to keep the text short, the types are referred to by three-letter acronyms. These acronyms are also used to specify the types in English; for example ILE, which stands for intuitive logical extravert. However, some authors in socionics specify the type using MBTI terminologies, given the similarities present in the two theories. In order to distinguish between socionics and MBTI types using this nomenclature, a tradition of leaving the last letter uncapitalized has been established among some groups.[citation needed] For example, an MBTI extroverted sensing feeling judging type is often referred to as an ESFJ, while a socionics ethical sensory extravert is referred to as an ESFj.

The following tables provides a list of types with the names most commonly used in socionics:[3]

Ego functions Formal name Social role Person MBTI Type
Si Te SLI (sensory logical introvert) Craftsman / Artisan Gabin ISTp
Se Ti SLE (sensory logical extrovert) Legionnaire / Conqueror Zhukov ESTp
Si Fe SEI (sensory ethical introvert) Mediator / Peacemaker Dumas ISFp
Se Fi SEE (sensory ethical extrovert) Politician / Ambassador Napoleon (or Caesar) ESFp
Ti Se LSI (logical sensory introvert) Inspector / Pragmatist Maxim Gorky ISTj
Te Si LSE (logical sensory extrovert) Director Stirlitz (or Sherlock Holmes) ESTj
Fi Se ESI (ethical sensory introvert) Conservator / Guardian Dreiser ISFj
Fe Si ESE (ethical sensory extrovert) Bonvivant / Enthusiast Hugo ESFj
Ni Te ILI (intuitive logical introvert) Critic / Observer Balzac INTp
Ne Ti ILE (intuitive logical extrovert) Seeker / Inventor Don Quixote ENTp
Ni Fe IEI (intuitive ethical introvert) Lyricist / Romantic Esenin INFp
Ne Fi IEE (intuitive ethical extrovert) Psychologist / Reporter Huxley ENFp
Ti Ne LII (logical intuitive introvert) Analyst Robespierre (or Descartes) INTj
Te Ni LIE (logical intuitive extrovert) Entrepreneur / Pioneer Jack London ENTj
Fi Ne EII (ethical intuitive introvert) Humanist / Empath Dostoyevsky INFj
Fe Ni EIE (ethical intuitive extrovert) Mentor / Actor Hamlet ENFj

[edit] Model A

Aušra Augustinavi?i?t? developed a model of personality (so-called model A), which includes all eight socionic functions.[4] A function's position in model A reflects the nature of its usage by a particular type. The following diagram is an example of the positions of the functions as expressed in model A.

1 2
4 3
6 5
7 8

Nature of functions

  • Function 1 - leading, program, primary, base, or dominant function. This is the strongest conscious function, and the most utilized function of the psyche. A person's outlook and role in life is largely determined by the nature of this function. One is generally very confident in the use of this function, and may defend it when challenged.
  • Function 2 - creative or secondary function, is second in influence only to the dominant function. It assists the dominant function in achieving its goal. One may be somewhat less confident with the use of this function than with his dominant function. As a result, the creative function is sometimes less instrumental when a person is challenged or threatened.
  • Function 3 - role function, is a weak but conscious function. One generally tries to be at least adequate in areas where use of the role function is necessary. However, generally one has very little control or confidence over the role function, and criticism is painfully acknowledged with respect to it. Tactful assistance is required from one's dual-seeking function to overcome the problems associated with the role function.
  • Function 4 - place of least resistance or the painful function, is a weak and conscious function, in addition to being the weakest function of the psyche. One painfully perceives his complete inability to use this function, and reacts negatively to its imposition upon him. Tactful assistance is required from one's hidden agenda to overcome the problems associated with this function.
  • Function 5 - suggestive, or inspired function, is a weak and unconscious function which is largely lacked. One requires assistance from somebody confident in this function in order to overcome the difficulties it presents.
  • Function 6 - actualization, the hidden agenda or estimative function. This is a weak and unconscious function which one often understands poorly. Nonetheless, this function has a strong influence over one's activities, and one requires assistance from someone who uses it confidently in order to understand it.
  • Function 7 - observant function, the function of personal knowledge. This is a strong but unconscious function. One generally has a good grasp of this function, but attempts to limit its use considerably. Arguments calling for restraint are often used to overlook this function.
  • Function 8 - demonstrative function. This is the strongest of the unconscious functions. As a result, it is so deeply rooted into the psyche that one is usually not even aware of its existence or utilization.

Blocks of the psyche

According to Augustinavi?i?t?, there are four blocks of the psyche: the ego block, the super-ego block, the id block, and the super-id block. The ego block is comprised of the dominant and creative functions, the super-ego block contains the role and PoLR functions, the super-id block contains the dual-seeking function and the hidden agenda, while the id block contains the seventh and eighth functions.

The functions within the ego and super-ego blocks are said to be conscious functions, while those within the id and super-id blocks are said to be unconscious. Similarly, the functions presiding within the ego and id blocks are said to be strong functions which are expressed easily or naturally, while the functions of the super-ego and super-id blocks are weak and expressed with difficulty or support, or are not expressed at all.

The 16 types in model A


Intertype Relations

The field of Intertype Relations within Socionics attempts to describe the nature of relations between two different people based on their Socionics type.


Relations of Identity describe relations between two individuals of the same type. Often, both partners will perceive similar situations and problems, and will take similar actions. Partners usually understand the motivations behind the other's actions. A relationship between identity partners is characterized by mutual understanding, self-development, and learning. Each is interested in the other's ideas, and sees their value.


Duality is a fundamental concept in Socionics. Dual relations are characterized by mutual benefit and support. Duality occurs between two members of the same quadra who are both either rational or irrational. So duality partners share the same function blocks, but their dominance is reversed. In a sense, they are opposite sides of the same coin. The 8 duality pairs are as follows:


In dual relations, the super-id functions of both partners are the ego functions of the other. As the super-id functions are generally the areas in which a person needs assistance from somebody skilled in these areas, duality interaction is quite rewarding and satisfying for both parties.


Activity relations occur between two members of the same quadra who share either introversion or extroversion. Relations of activity can resemble duality since the super-id functions are both present in the ego functions of the other partner. However, activity relations are somewhat less fulfilling than dual relations. Each partner's dominant function is the others Hidden Agenda function. Activity relations are better suited to friendly correspondence.


Mirror relations occur between types who share the same ego functions, yet place different emphases on them; the dominant function of one partner is the creative function of the other. Mirror relations are characterized by similar actions and motivations between partners, and mutual understanding. Interactions usually result in a drawn out dialogue, as each partner seems to keep opening up avenues of thought which the other needs to now clarify verbally. An important source of dissension between mirror types is the opposing temperament, as all mirror relations occur between EJ and IP temperaments, or between EP and IJ temperaments. EJs find the passive, unstable IP behavior to be a severe hindrance in getting things done, while IPs find the restless and proactive actions of EJ types paranoid and stifling. Similarly, EP types find IJ types to be somewhat dull and boring, while IJ types see EP types as wildly unpredictable and impetuous.


Comparative relations occur between types who share the same dominant function but possess different creative functions. Comparative partners often see each other as interesting people and are often able to see each other's motivations, but often tailor their actions towards areas in which the other partner is unskilled or uninterested, as the creative function for one partner is the place of least resistance of the other.


Relations of semi-duality are similar to relations of duality. Semi-duality occurs between partners who share each other's dual-seeking (5th) functions but lack each other's actualization (hidden agenda) functions. As a result, both partners often perceive elements of duality from the relationship but feel the other partner is misplacing the correct emphasis; as semi-duals will be able to help their partners with their dual seeking functions but both have the least confidence in the same area of the psyche (thinking, feeling, sensing, or intuition).

Look-a-like / Cooperation

Look-a-like relations occur between partners who have the same creative function but differing dominant functions. As a result, look-a-like partners may often perform similar activities or have similar fields of interest, but often do not understand each other's internal motivations. Look-a-like relations for this reason can become very formal and bussinesslike.


Relations of Illusion occur between partners whose creative functions are the other partners' hidden agenda, but whose dual seeking functions are part of the id block of the other partner. Relations of illusion can resemble duality, but neither partner is particularly satisfied, as they receive no assistance in their dual-seeking functions from this relation.

Benefit / Instruction / Order

Relations of Benefit are asymmetrical relations; one type benefits another. Relations of benefit are characterized by the beneficiary's attempt to draw in the benefactor to a world where the benefactor clearly does not belong. The beneficiary's dual seeking function is the benefactor's creative function, and as a result the beneficiary often takes an interest in the benefactor. However, the benefactor's dual seeking function is the beneficiary's place of least resistance, and the benefactor finds the beneficiary a highly uninteresting person. Relations of benefit frequently end with the departure of the benefactor... often to the utter bewilderment of the beneficiary.


Relations of supervision are asymmetrical; one type supervises another. Relations of supervision are characterized by the supervisor's attempt to introduce his base function into the supervisee's life. The supervisor often perceives the supervisee as an interesting person and understands the supervisee's lifestyle, since the supervisor's creative function is the supervisee's base function. Nonetheless, the supervisor is often alarmed by the lack of his base function in the supervisor's actions, as the supervisor's base function is the supervisee's place of least resistance. The supervisee often perceives the supervisor to be the evil incarnate, while the bewildered supervisor wonders why the supervisee reacts so poorly to his benevolent assistance.

Contrary / Contrast

Contrary relations occur between types confident in the same area of the psyche but who place different emphases on each function. For example, the relation between an EIE and an EII, who possess in the ego block extroverted feeling with introverted intuition and introverted feeling with extroverted intuition, respectively, is a contrary relation. Contrary relations often consist of similar lifestyles with lack of mutual understanding and differing thought processes.


Super-ego relations occur between types whose ego functions are the other partners' super-ego functions. Super-ego relations are generally characterized by open conflict, discomfort, differing values, and lack of true understanding of partners' motivations.


Relations of Quasi-Identity are characterized by mutual misunderstanding. One partner's ego functions are the other partner's demonstrative and observant functions. As quasi-identicals have opposite functions, they will often have similar interests and become involved in similar activities, but they rarely understand each other's motivations or ideas.


Relations of Conflict are, unsurprisingly, characterized by constantly escalating conflict. Conflictors are the types with the most dissimilar values, and they rarely understand anything regarding each other's motivations or lifestyles. Conflictors may take for granted truths that their partners will dismiss as absurd. Sometimes they understand each other so little that the conflict is not well understood, but prevails under the surface, discomfiting both partners to no end. Conflictors also are of opposite temperaments, a fact which both partners often find irritating.


There are four temperaments in socionics; namely, the extroverted rational (EJ), introverted rational (IJ), extroverted irrational (EP), and introverted irrational (IP) temperaments.

Extroverted Rational Temperament

Extroverted rational types, namely the ESE, EIE, LIE, and LSE, are characterized by energetic and proactive behavior.

Introverted Rational Temperament

Introverted rational types, namely the LII, LSI, ESI, and EII, are characterized by slow and methodical behavior.

Extroverted Irrational Temperament

Extroverted irrational types, namely the ILE, SLE, SEE, and IEE, are characterized by impulsive and unpredictable behavior.

Introverted Irrational Temperament

Introverted irrational types, namely the SEI, IEI, ILI, and SLI, are characterized by lack of motivation, inertia, and unstable moods and energy levels.


A Quadra is a group of four sociotypes whose members prefer the use of four information elements over their counterparts, with one ethical, one logical, one sensory, and one intuitive function. In a Quadra, mirror, activity, and dual relations are experienced by each member of the group. The unique feature of the Quadra is that it offers the greatest degree of psychological comfort among all groups containing four types in which functional interaction is symmetrical. The feeling of comfort and harmony produced by the Quadra is due to the fact that all types in it are alike since they seek the expression of the four information elements in their ego and super-id blocks and the repression of the information elements in their super-ego and id blocks.

The Quadras:





















Faith (for Content): 
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